Unemployment claims spiked by 6.6 million last week, meaning more Americans
became unemployed during one week than the total already unemployed before
COVID-19 hit the U.S.
This marks a 3,000% increase compared to the levels of February’s
weekly initial claims of unemployment, and it means the unemployment rate
likely is around 9.7%–approaching three times the record-low 3.5% in February.
A lot has happened since last week’s unemployment claims were
For starters, Congress passed and President Donald Trump signed
into law the CARES Act, including provisions intended to prevent unemployment
as well as a counterproductive incentive to increase unemployment.
And then the president announced a 30-day
extension to the nation’s “slow the spread” guidelines, with governors
across many states continuing exceptional measures, including school and business
If April 30 remains the date at which some businesses begin
opening back up again, many of them may be able to keep their workers employed
even if they’re not working temporarily.
In large part, that’s because the CARES Act’s new Paycheck Protection Program provides partially forgivable loans through the Small Business Administration.
Starting April 3, businesses and nonprofit organizations with
fewer than 500 employees can apply to receive loans, as can those in the
accommodations and food services industries (so long as they don’t employ more
than 500 at one location).
If lenders are allowed to use automated approval processes to get
money out the door quickly, the program could provide meaningful relief within
a week or two.
The purpose of the loans is to help employers maintain their operations and employees, despite a slowdown or complete shutdown in operations. Businesses can use the funds for payrolls, utilities, rent, and the interest on mortgages and other debt payments. So long as employers maintain their payrolls, an amount equal to up to two and a half months of typical monthly payroll costs can be forgiven.
For larger employers, however, loans available through the CARES
Act cannot be forgiven and they impose significant conditions that will deter
many businesses from applying.
On net, more than half of U.S. workers are employed by small
businesses and accommodation and food services companies that are eligible for
forgivable loans. That should help prevent layoffs.
The catch, however, is a counterproductive provision in the CARES
Act that provides an additional $600 per week in unemployment insurance
It makes sense in light of the temporary health crisis to hold
workers harmless–providing 100% unemployment benefits compared to the typical
50%–but it doesn’t make sense to pay people more than they earned when employed.
The $600 bonus unemployment benefit means that a majority of
Americans could make more money unemployed than working.
The median full-time worker in America would earn $2,300 more
through four months of unemployment than they would while working.
And someone who works 30 hours per week at the minimum wage would
gain $8,500 through four months of unemployment. In fact, such folks would make
more in four months of not working than in an entire year of working.
Typically, employers have to lay off workers in order for them to
receive unemployment benefits.
But the CARES Act places the ball in workers’ court. One of 11
provisions through which workers may qualify for unemployment insurance
benefits is if “the individual has to quit his or her job as a direct result of
That’s a broad provision that could make almost anyone eligible for benefits–even if they could maintain their employment connection while temporarily not working through measures such as mandated paid sick and family leave or the Paycheck Protection Program.
Moreover, now that employers know that workers actually can come
out ahead through unemployment, they almost certainly will lay off some workers
who they otherwise might have tried to retain.
But unemployment isn’t good for workers. Not only does it mean a
loss of health insurance, which is particularly troublesome during a public
health crisis. Being uninsured also can reduce future income and employment
Moreover, if more workers sit on the sidelines until the $600
bonus unemployment benefit goes away July 31, businesses won’t be able to ramp
production back up once it’s safe to do so. The economy will languish instead
If policymakers want to prevent the unemployment rate from spiking
to what the Federal
Reserve projected could be 32%, they should fix the botched
$600 bonus unemployment benefit by capping it at 100% of workers’ previous
This one commonsense fix could prevent millions of lost jobs and
help reboot the economy once this public health crisis subsides.